WHAT ARE TERPENES?
The terpenes are the main constituent of essential oils (aroma and flavor) of plants and flowers such as lemon or orange and of course cannabis. They are the fundamental pieces of the aromas that we appreciate when being near, consume or manipulate both plants and flowers and fruits, being able to find more than 100 different types of terpenes only in cannabis.
The so-called terpenes or what is the same in this case, the aroma and flavor of marijuana, are basically aromatic molecules , where monoterpenes would be those found in greater proportion, such as, for example, Eucalyptol, Linalool, Limonene, Pineno, Myrcene, etc … But they are also composed of Sesquiterpenes, Caryophylene and Triterpenes, of less presence than those mentioned above, but still play a very important role in the final aroma, since depending on the proportion of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes we will obtain aromas or others There are also terpenes that do not appear in the floral clusters of cannabis plants and if in other parts such as in the roots, this is the case of triterpenes.
We have to know that depending on the variety and its genetic richness, they will be formed by one type or another of terpenes and in greater or lesser quantity. This added to several factors, such as our ability to grow, culture medium, range of products (organic or chemical), the cultivation area, the weather, cutting, drying, curing, etc …, will make us manage to harvest our plants with spectacular aromatic richness or simply a passable marijuana (organoleptically speaking).
A small piece of advice that will be wonderful for all lovers of aromas and who want to obtain the greatest potential of terpene from their crops would be to harvest in the morning, in the case of being an outdoor crop. This is done not to harvest with high temperatures and avoid the volatilization of a high percentage of terpenes. And in the case of being an indoor crop, we would cut our harvest as soon as the lighting systems were turned on , for the same reason mentioned above, the volatilization of a high percentage of terpenes due to the high temperatures produced by the floodlights culture.
WHERE DO TERPENES FORM?
The terpenes are developed within the resiníferas or trichomes glands (bulbous trichomes, sessile capitate trichomes and tricoma capitado notching) and depending on which part of the plant to form, if sheet or in will be flower richer in monoterpenes or in sesquiterpenes.
As you know within the resin gland, terpenes are not alone, but they share an apartment with other components such as cannabinoids , THC psychoactive, non-psychoactive, such as CBD and others. So this makes us see that really the amount or percentage of terpenes compared to the total volume of plant mass in marijuana plants is minimal (minus 1%) in fresh and dry would be around (0.1%), and Even so, it has captivated us with incredibly striking aromas. Imagine a variety that was composed of 10% terpenes of the total of its vegetable mass … … it would be amazing !!
ROLE OF TERPENES IN MARIJUANA PLANTS
The terpenes have several important functions for the health and welfare of the cannabis plant, are not just for decorating plants with their rich aromas.
The attraction of beneficial insects that will help propagate the fertile pollen of male plants among female plants, would be one of the most important tasks, since it directly influences the success of a possible fertilization of fertile pollen in females prepared for fertilization and Start the reproduction process. On the other hand, it protects it to some extent against the attack of harmful pests and fungi , thanks to the combination of different types of terpenes that will bother their stay, but it will also protect it by attracting beneficial predatory insects that will help it fight the possible plague or coming plagues.
We have to know and take into account that terpenes are not only aromas and flavors of the flora that surrounds us, but also have a proven and effective repellent and medicinal effect.
TYPES OF TERPENES IN MARIJUANA
Myrcene or Beta-Myrcene, is the main essential oil of wild omillo, but we can also find it in hops, mango and cannabis. It acts as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, muscle relaxant, helps to fall asleep in aromatherapy treatments and enhances the effect of cannabis by improving their passage to the brain. Myrcene is a terpene with a greater presence in Indian varieties, exceeding 50%. In combination with THC it creates a synergistic effect helping to obtain a more physical and bodily effect, more typical of the Indian varieties.
Pinene is the main essential oil of pine resin, being one of the most widespread terpenes in nature. Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, broncho-dilating properties are attributed to it that would help cannabinoids penetrate deeper into the lungs and be absorbed in greater proportion. The pinene can compose up to 20% of the total composition of terpenes in a plant.
Limonene is the main component of the essential oils of citrus fruits . One of the most widespread terpenes in nature. It is attributed repellent, insecticidal, anti-septic, anxiolytic and dermatological properties. Very used as flavoring in the food and pharmaceutical industry. And especially in cleaning products (bleach, dishwasher, air fresheners, etc …).
Linalool is the main aromatic component of lavender and also of many other types of plants. Commonly used in cleaning and hygiene products for its pleasant aroma and as an insecticide. He is attributed anxiolytic, anesthetic, anti-convulsive, sedative properties, such as balm against skin burns. The possible synergistic combination with THC on the one hand, creates a more sedative and analgesic effect, but also creates synergy with CBD and / or THCV and / or CBDV, and can have an effect as an anti-seizure, beneficial in cases of epilepsy.
Eucalyptol, is the main component of the essential oil of eucalyptus, being able to compose almost 100% of its essential oil. We can also find it widely spread in the plant kingdom. It is attributed repellent and insecticidal properties, also against asthma, sinusitis, as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunosuppressive properties, anti-leukemic properties. Eucalyptol is found almost entirely in sativa varieties, 5% of the total terpenes created, in Indian varieties it reaches a poor 1% of the total terpenes created.
Caryophylene, with a scent reminiscent of black pepper, is a mixture of three components, Alpha-carophylene, Betacariophilene and Caryophylene Oxide). All these terpenic compounds are present in all varieties of marijuana. Due to its high resistance to decarboxylation, it is one of the terpenes with the greatest presence in extractions. It is recognized insecticidal, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-blood coagulant, gastric protective properties. It is also authorized for human consumption and is one of the components with which police dogs are trained, for the detection of cannabis.
The terpinol, is a wide range of flowers, but especially in lilacs. Commonly used by the cosmetics industry for its pleasant aroma. It is attributed relaxing and sedative properties.
SYNERGY AND ANTAGONISMS BETWEEN TERPENES AND CANNABIONOIDES
Many times we associate cannabis odors with certain effects and this is partly true. Growers with many years of experience and hundreds of tastings behind them, are able to guess according to the genetics and the aromas it contains, the effect that will cause us to consume it. This means my friends, that terpenes can enhance (synergy) or on the contrary cancel (antagonism) the effects of cannabis depending on the combination of terpenes that the plant contains (be from a bank that has selected the plants with which work only to contain a high percentage of terpenes that enhances the effect of THC).
That is why many times the same varieties worked from cutting or from seed (especially if they are clones) can have different effects just because the production of terpenes of a specimen and its clone have been slightly different. This indicates that terpenes have a direct relationship on the effect of cultivated genetics and not only on the flavors and aromas. Therefore, this fact will change the way in which new genetics are created (if you have not already done so) and especially in the way we make our personal choice. If we are going to buy our seeds in the future for a new crop, we can know on the one hand the psychoactive potential since almost all banks have studies on the amount of cannabinoids that produce their varieties, but also,
This opens a new door for the world of medicinal and recreational cannabis, which today is already being used and studied for the benefit of industry and consumers.
WHAT ARE TERPENES USED FOR?
In the case of marijuana terpenes , its use is increasingly being extended. Today both growers and consumers use them for the following:
- Potentiate the aroma and flavor of cannabis or hashish of low quality.
- Add them to low extractions in terpenes caused by the use of solvents and high temperatures or by using a low raw material in terpenoids.
- Add them to new products rich in CBD but not very pleasant flavors.
- To add them to tobacco and give it a special touch.
Terpenes or essential oils, have their main role in today’s society in their use for aromatherapy , widely used as a curative method of some diseases that is based on the effects produced by aromas in the body. Of which we can benefit in different ways, since depending on the plant and the terpenes that compose it we will obtain relaxing, stimulating and even aphrodisiac effects.
Depending on the type of essential oil with which we go to work, we can use it for massages, as an air freshener for Turkish baths or saunas, relaxation therapies, pilates, yoga etc … This type of use of essential oils is very widespread and is plenty known.
Also, as we have said before, they are used to give organoleptic qualities to a large number of household, cosmetic and food products , since they are normally obtained naturally and are free of toxic substances.
Another widespread use for a few years, is its use in electronic cigarette liquids , both cannabis terpenes and those of other plants.
Here you have a brief summary of the types of plants and their essential oils that can be used medicinally.
EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS:
- Relaxers: amaro, cypress, carnation, juniper, gálbano, ylang-ylang, cedar, tangerine, chamomile, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, rose, sandalwood and vetiver.
- Stimulants: angelica, cinnamon, cardamom, clove, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, ginger, lime, mint, orange, palmarosa, petit grain, black pepper, pine, grapefruit and rosemary.
- Aphrodisiacs: angelica, cinnamon, cardamom, coriander, carnation, clove, galbanum, ylang-ylang, jasmine, ginger, cedar wood, neroli, patchouli, rosemary, rose, sandalwood and vetiver.